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10/2021 : Une publication dans Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS)

Methane-derived carbon flows into host–virus networks at different trophic levels in soil

par Laurent Krähenbühl - publié le


Mia Sungeun Lee, Christina Hazard et Graeme Nicol (Ampère)
co-publient dans la prestigieuse revue PNAS

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Methane-derived carbon flows into host–virus networks at different trophic levels in soil

Sungeun Lee, Ella T. Sieradzki, Alexa M. Nicolas, Robin L. Walker, Mary K. Firestone, Christina Hazard, and Graeme W. Nicol

PNAS August 10, 2021 118 (32) e2105124118 ; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2105124118

Significance
The impact of soil viruses on prokaryotic hosts and their functional processes is largely unknown. While metagenomic sequencing of soil microbial communities enables identification of linkages between viruses and hosts, this does not necessarily identify contemporary interactions. To enable a detailed analysis of active virus–host interactions between individual populations, we focused on the critical biogeochemical process of methane (CH4) oxidation and followed the transfer of carbon from hosts to their associated viruses in situ. Analysis of 13C-enriched metagenomic DNA demonstrated that CH4-derived carbon is transferred into viral biomass via both primary and secondary utilizers of CH4 and suggests viral predation is an important mechanism for releasing CH4-derived organic carbon into the soil matrix.

Abstract
The concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4) continues to increase with microbial communities controlling soil–atmosphere fluxes. While there is substantial knowledge of the diversity and function of prokaryotes regulating CH4 production and consumption, their active interactions with viruses in soil have not been identified. Metagenomic sequencing of soil microbial communities enables identification of linkages between viruses and hosts. However, this does not determine if these represent current or historical interactions nor whether a virus or host are active. In this study, we identified active interactions between individual host and virus populations in situ by following the transfer of assimilated carbon. Using DNA stable-isotope probing combined with metagenomic analyses, we characterized CH4-fueled microbial networks in acidic and neutral pH soils, specifically primary and secondary utilizers, together with the recent transfer of CH4-derived carbon to viruses. A total of 63% of viral contigs from replicated soil incubations contained homologs of genes present in known methylotrophic bacteria. Genomic sequences of 13C-enriched viruses were represented in over one-third of spacers in CRISPR arrays of multiple closely related Methylocystis populations and revealed differences in their history of viral interaction. Viruses infecting nonmethanotrophic methylotrophs and heterotrophic predatory bacteria were also identified through the analysis of shared homologous genes, demonstrating that carbon is transferred to a diverse range of viruses associated with CH4-fueled microbial food networks.